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A Brief History of Pi

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Note that there's a huge amount about pi that I didn't cover in this video due to time - I didn't even mention proofs of it being irrational and transcendental, or why we call it pi! I chose to focus on the development of its approximation as a hook to teach the broader history of mathematics, rather than make this video an exhaustive list of facts. The wiki is a great place to learn more about the rest of the number's history and applications in maths and physics: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pi#History

A few nitpicky things:
- I made mistakes distinguishing between 'digits of pi calculated' and 'decimal points of pi calculated' in some sections, so it is possible that this error is elsewhere without me knowing.
- Archimedes didn't do his approximation with squares, he started with hexagons and then increased the order of the polygon. I chose to present the zeroth order version of his algorithm using squares for simplicity, but note that this is not what he did.
- Something which got lost from the final version of this video is my argument that during the Age of Enlightenment pi shifted from being a physical (measured) constant to a purely logical (theoretical) one. This then embodies the philosophical shift in society at the time. This is hinted at but not fully explained, so I thought I'd put this here.
- Lastly, I am truly sorry for the pronunciations which I doubtlessly completely murdered in this video. At least I spared you my attempt at Chinese.

I am hugely indebted to Alex Bellos and his excellent book Alex's Adventures in Numberland for the inspiration to make this video. There is an entire chapter of the book devoted to a broader but shallower discussion of pi and its history, which I highly recommend.

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